## Using the random.org generator in Mathematica

May 15, 2012

An answer by the user Emre on the Mathematica StackExchange site introduced me to the random.org random number generation service by Mads Haahr. In the spirit of a previous post of mine, I wanted to be able to use the random.org service through the method plug-in framework for the random number generators of Mathematica. I have thus written a barebones set of routines for the purpose:

RandomOrg /: RandomInitializeGenerator[RandomOrg, ___] := RandomOrg["http://www.random.org/"]

RandomOrg[___]["GeneratesRealsQ"] := True; RandomOrg[___]["GeneratesIntegersQ"] := True;

RandomOrg[___]["SeedGenerator"[seed_]] := RandomOrg["http://www.random.org/"]

RandomOrg[url_]["GenerateReals"[n_, {a_, b_}, prec_]] := {a + (b - a) Import[url <> "decimal-fractions/?col=1&format=plain&num=" <> ToString[n] <> "&dec=" <> ToString[Round[prec]] <> "&rnd=new", "List"], RandomOrg[url]}

RandomOrg[url_]["GenerateIntegers"[n_, {a_, b_}]] := {Import[url <> "integers/?col=1&base=10&format=plain" <> "&min=" <> ToString[a] <> "&max=" <> ToString[b] <> "&num=" <> ToString[n] <> "&rnd=new", "List"], RandomOrg[url]}

Here are a few examples of its use:

BlockRandom[SeedRandom[0, Method -> RandomOrg]; RandomReal[{0, 1}, 10, WorkingPrecision -> 20]]
 BlockRandom[SeedRandom[0, Method -> RandomOrg]; RandomInteger[{1, 10}, 10]]

As a tiny reminder, the site has a daily quota in place that limits the amount of random numbers you can generate using their service in a single day. See their website for more details.

## On emulating the Texas Instruments random number generator

February 12, 2012

I recently needed to emulate the random number generator internally used by Texas Instruments calculators in Mathematica. Thanks to this United-TI forum post, I found that the algorithm being used is a combined multiplicative linear congruential generator due to Pierre L’Ecuyer. The particular generator used is listed on page 747 of the article; as noted there, the combined MLCG has a period of $2305842648436451838\approx 2.30584\times10^{18}$.

I figured this might be useful to other people, so I’m posting the routines needed to get RandomReal[] and related functions to emulate the rand() function (and ilk) on TI calculators:

TexasInstruments /: RandomInitializeGenerator[TexasInstruments, ___] := TexasInstruments[12345, 67890]
 TexasInstruments[___]["GeneratesRealsQ"] := True; TexasInstruments[___]["GeneratesIntegersQ"] := True;

TexasInstruments[___]["SeedGenerator"[seed_]] := If[seed == 0, TexasInstruments[12345, 67890], TexasInstruments[Mod[40014 seed, 2147483563], Mod[seed, 2147483399]]];

TexasInstruments[s1_, s2_]["GenerateReals"[n_, {a_, b_}, prec_]] := Module[{p = s1, q = s2, temp}, {a + (b - a) Table[p = Mod[40014 p, 2147483563]; q = Mod[40692 q, 2147483399]; temp = (p - q)/2147483563; If[temp < 0, temp += 1]; temp, {n}], TexasInstruments[p, q]} ]

TexasInstruments[s1_, s2_]["GenerateIntegers"[n_, {a_, b_}]] := Module[{p = s1, q = s2, temp}, {a + Floor[(b - a + 1) Table[p = Mod[40014 p, 2147483563]; q = Mod[40692 q, 2147483399]; temp = (p - q)/2147483563; If[temp < 0, temp += 1]; temp, {n}]], TexasInstruments[p, q]} ]

This is based on the PRNG method plug-in framework in Mathematica that is described here. For instance, here is the Mathematica equivalent of executing 0→rand:rand(10) (for Zilog Z80 calculators like the TI-83 Plus) or RandSeed 0:rand() (for Motorola 68k calculators like the TI-89):

(* 0→rand:rand(10) *) BlockRandom[SeedRandom[0, Method -> TexasInstruments]; RandomReal[{0, 1}, 10, WorkingPrecision -> 20]]

Here’s corresponding code for randInt() and randM() on the Z80 calculators:

(* 0->rand:randInt(1,10,10) *) BlockRandom[SeedRandom[0, Method -> TexasInstruments]; RandomInteger[{1, 10}, 10]]

(* 0->rand:randM(3,3) *) BlockRandom[SeedRandom[0, Method -> TexasInstruments]; Reverse[Reverse /@ RandomInteger[{-9, 9}, {3, 3}]]]

Due to differences in precision, there is bound to be some discrepancy in the least significant figures of the results from the calculators and the results from the Mathematica emulation; still, I believe that this is a serviceable fake.

## Making Pretty Pictures, Again

September 5, 2010

I got interested in making nice pictures in Mathematica again, after a hiatus of ~5 years. I suppose I should be writing up on how I generated these samples, but I’ll try to formalize the mathematics behind these first. For now, enjoy these short movies!

\Jan